Micro-Organisms Associated With Meat, Poultry And Fish
Micro-organisms associated with raw meat, poultry and fish are diverse. They include bacteria, protozoa, viruses and for meat, less studied agents such as prions that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Many contaminating organisms, originally at the external surface or in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract of healthy animals. Infection occurs and spreads during transport/holding before slaughter/killing, during the slaughtering and subsequent handling: hide/remove the skin, cutting, debon-ing, evisceration, washing and other
The basic microbiological hazards of concern frozen meat and poultry include infectious Gram-negative bacteria such as bacteria Salmonella, Campylobacter spp., pathogenic Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica, Gram infectious bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Gram toxicogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and C. botulinum spores, protozoa parasites such as Cryptosporidium spp., Lamblia spp., Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii.
Some of these organisms are found in a wide variety of animal species cause disease in these animals, and a host of others are more limited. Risks associated with raw meat and poultry and occur frequently discussed in more detail McClure (2002).
Some are present in large enough quantities (e.g. levels of salmonella to 103/g and Campylobacter spp. up to 106 colony forming units, some for poultry carcass) and is an important factor for the risk assessment and control of these hazards before use. As for meat and poultry products, microorganisms serious concern in fish infectious bacteria and contain Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae and other pathogenic vibrios, such as parahaemolyticus and V. V. vulnificus.
Micro-organisms associated with the quality of or damage to the defects in the meat, poultry and fish : pseudomonads, mold, yeast and Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and micrococci. The density of the appearance of microorganisms on the skin of the meat and poultry can be more than 109 a/cm2. In addition to the pollution on the skin, further contamination may result from handling during slaughter, cutting, deboning and packaging, from knives, wash water, hands and clothing workers and hides/skins of other animals. Methods of cleaning the carcass usually ineffective, but burning and fast cooling until the freezing can reduce the number of micro-pollutants significantly.
Microflora associated with fish and other seafood, as a rule, reflects the flora of the environment in which they were captured and assembled. As meat and poultry, fish are healthy, then the muscle tissue and internal organs, are usually sterile, although the cardiovascular system, some shellfish not " closed". For example, haemolymph crabs usually contains marine bacteria, such as vibrios, sometimes at high levels. Other organisms, usually associated with fish, molluscs and crustaceans include Pseudomonas, Micrococcus spp., members of Acinetobacter-Moraxella birth, corynebacteria, Geotrichum spp. and Rhodotorula spp. Fish, molluscs and crustaceans associated with coastal waters and estuarine environments tend to harbour a wide variety of organisms, including Bacillus spp., members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and viruses. Marine fish and shellfish harbour halotolerant organisms.
When the fish are caught, they are often stored in a refrigerated brines or ice, and if caught in salt water, this dilutes the concentration of salt is allowing halotolerant microorganisms, who generally prefer lower concentrations of salt for optimal growth and the ability to multiply quickly. Micro-organisms from temperate waters often psychrotrophic or psychrotolerant while those from tropical waters are not, thus, the rate of cooling and low temperature storage after capture can have a significant impact on the flora, which develops to a frozen fish. In some situations, shellfish, such as shrimp, cooked shortly after the capture, so it destroys a large part of harmful organisms (vegetative cells), but in dealing with them (e.g. during shelling/peeling, sorting) after cooking often means that the pollution levels can return to its previous levels and sometimes include other microorganisms such as E. coli, Staphylococcus. Levels of shrimps, as a rule, 105-107 CFU/g at the time of arrival to the processing plants, and those of the tropical waters may be higher..