Industrial use of refrigeration
Industrial refrigeration can be defined as the order from the factory to provide cooling for the large-scale processes. In this book, the definition is limited to processes other than air conditioning or food and beverages. These falls within a more General definition of industrial refrigeration, but are covered elsewhere.
The application of refrigeration equipment for chemical plants, for example, gas separation, crystallization of substances, destruction of reaction heat, along with cold in manufacturing and construction, snow and ice, sports and environmental test chambers included in the definition. Some environmental test chambers are very small and, possibly, could be better described as original equipment.
And another aspect of industrial refrigeration equipment in a wide range of temperatures involved. Some processes require cooling at a temperature above 0C, which can be placed with chilled water. The next category would applications requiring temperatures below 0 C and -40C. These temperatures can be generated using conventional single-phase vapor compression cycle cooling with two-level system in some cases.
There are many applications that require temperatures below -40C and down to about -70C, and they are what can be called low temperature. The dividing line of -40C notes approximate border, where commonly used refrigerants such as R717, R404A and R407C keeping a positive pressure. Below -40C is a region, where pressure can be detected, if not more specialized refrigerants are used. This, combined with the need for high-rising temperatures frequently makes the cascade system is a good solution when dealing below -40C.
Below -90C Kingdom cryogenic refrigeration units, which produces and uses liquefied gases such as liquid nitrogen or oxygen and is outside the scope.